Greenteahaus:  The Green Tea Reference Library

Scientific information on anticancer effects of green tea and the EGCG level of the green tea used in cancer research

Follow links to abstracts below. Complete bibliography information may be used to obtain a full copy of the article at your local library.
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1 Cell signaling and regulators of cell cycle as molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by dietary agents. Biochem Pharmacol 2000;60:1051-9.
2 Inhibition of angiogenesis and induction of endothelial and tumor cell apoptosis by green tea in animal models of human high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leukemia 2000;14:1477-82.
3 Signal transduction pathways: targets for chemoprevention of skin cancer. Lancet Oncol 2000;1:181-8.
4 Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Prev Med 1992;21:334-350.
5 Chemoprevention of vinyl carbamate-induced lung tumors in strain A mice. Exp Lung Res 2000 ;26:757-72.
6 Prevention of liver cancer. Curr Oncol Rep 2002;4:464-70.
7 Chemoprevention of oral cancer by green tea. Gen Dent 2002;50:140-6.
8 Effects of black tea extract on transplantable and solid tumors in Swiss albino mice. Biomed Environ Sci 2000;13:213-8.
9 Inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea. Int J Exp Pathol 2001;82:309-16.
10 Green tea and skin. Arch Dermatol 2000;136:989-94.
11 Green tea polyphenols: DNA photodamage and photoimmunology. J Photochem Photobiol B 2001;65:109-14.
12 Green tea polyphenolic antioxidants and skin photoprotection (Review). Int J Oncol 2001;18:1307-13.
13 Total phenol, catechin, and caffeine contents of teas commonly consumed in the United Kingdom. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:565-70.
14 Inhibitory effects of orally administered green tea, black tea, and caffeine on skin carcinogenesis in mice previously treated with ultraviolet B light (high-risk mice): relationship to decreased tissue fat. Cancer Res 2001;61:5002-9.
15 Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Growth, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathways, Gene Expression, and Chemosensitivity in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines. Clin Cancer Res 2001;7:4220-4229.
16 Suppression of azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity in the colonic mucosa of rats drinking a crude green tea extract. Nutr Cancer 2000;38:60-4.
17 Catechins are not major components responsible for anti-genotoxic effects of tea extracts against nitroarenes. Mutat Res 2001;496:75-81.
18 Synergistic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate with sulindac against colon carcinogenesis of rats treated with azoxymethane. Cancer Lett 2002;177:49-56.
19 Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3 gallate inhibits Her-2/neu signaling, proliferation, and transformed phenotype of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2002;62:652-5.
20 Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:1830-8.
21 Effect of dihydrokainate on the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Cancer Lett 2002;179:157-63.
22 Green tea inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction in human breast cancer cells. J Nutr 2002;132:2307-11.
23 Tea as a potential chemopreventive agent in PhIP carcinogenesis: effects of green tea and black tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation in female F-344 rats. Nutr Cancer 2000;36:52-8.
24 Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin inhibits DNA replication and consequently induces leukemia cell apoptosis. Int J Mol Med 2001;7:645-52.
25 Inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on growth and invasion in human biliary tract carcinoma cells. World J Surg 2002;26:683-6.
26 Suppression of human pancreatic carcinoma cell growth and invasion by epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Pancreas 2002;25:45-8.
27 Mechanism of up-regulated gap junctional intercellular communication during chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. Mutat Res 2001;480-481:219-29.
28 The specific anti-cancer activity of green tea (-)-epigaloocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Amino Acids 2002;22: 131-143.
29 Herbals, cancer prevention and health. J Nutr 2001 131(11 Suppl):3034S-6S.
30 Comparative studies on the effects of green tea extracts and individual tea catechins on human CYP1A gene expression. Chem Biol Interact 2000;128:211-229.
31 Prevention of carcinogenesis of mouse mammary epithelial cells RIII/MG by epigallocatechin gallate. Int J Mol Med 2002;10:311-5.
32 Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2002;42:25-54.
33 Effects of dietary powdered green tea and theanine on tumor growth and endogenous hyperlipidemia in hepatoma-bearing rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002 ;66:711-6.
34 Green tea inhibits growth of human oral cancer cells, but normal cells.  Toxicol In Vitro. 2005 Mar;19(2):231-42.
35 Inhibition of lymphocytic leukemia cells by green tea and its mechanism. Blood. 2004 Aug 1;104(3):788-94.
36 Overexpression of cancer MMPs, an invasive factor, is blocked by green tea. Anticancer Res. 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2B):747-53.
37 Tobacco carcinogen-induced DNA damage to human oral cells is reduced by green tea. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Jan;49(1):43-51.

Abstracts
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1

Agarwal R. Cell signaling and regulators of cell cycle as molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by dietary agents. Biochem Pharmacol 2000;60:1051-9.

Treatment of cells with silymarin, genistein, and EGCG resulted in strong cell growth inhibition at lower doses, and complete inhibition at higher doses. In contrast to silymarin, higher doses of genistein also showed cell death. A more profound cytotoxic effect was observed in the case of EGCG, with strong cell death at lower doses and complete loss of viability at higher doses. Together, these results suggest that cell signaling and regulators of cell cycle are potential epigenetic molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by dietary agents.
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2

Bertolini F, Fusetti L, Rabascio C, Cinieri S, Martinelli G, Pruneri G. Inhibition of angiogenesis and induction of endothelial and tumor cell apoptosis by green tea in animal models of human high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leukemia 2000;14:1477-82.

Recent reports suggest that green tea consumption may prevent or delay the growth of human cancer, possibly by impairing tumor invasion and/or by an anti-angiogenic effect. In NOD/SCID mice transplanted intraperitoneally with human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cell lines, Namalwa, RAP1-EIO and HS-Sultan, green tea prevented 50% of Namalwa tumors (P = 0.0017 by log-rank) and significantly inhibited RAP1-EIO and HS-Sultan tumor growth. Notably, treatment with the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide at the maximum tolerable dose was unable to prevent Namalwa tumor occurrence. In the three models evaluated, the frequency of apoptotic endothelial and tumor cells was significantly increased in mice given green tea compared to controls. These results support further trials in NHL to evaluate whether green tea, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, may delay or prevent disease progression.
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3

Bode AM, Dong Z. Signal transduction pathways: targets for chemoprevention of skin cancer. Lancet Oncol 2000;1:181-8.

Chemoprevention can be defined as the use of substances to interfere with the process of cancer development. Although substantial progress has been made in elucidating the basis of carcinogenesis, further advances are needed to identify molecular and cellular targets for effective use of chemopreventive agents. Hundreds of compounds have been identified as potential chemopreventive agents. However, the safety and efficacy of each substance must be thoroughly investigated. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process in which numerous genes are affected. Many of these genes regulate important cellular functions, so they are prime targets for chemopreventive agents. A major focus of our work has been the elucidation of mechanism(s) explaining the anticancer actions attributed to several chemopreventive compounds, especially 'natural compounds' that are considered safe because they are present in commonly consumed foods and beverages. Of particular interest are selected drugs (eg aspirin) and certain dietary factors (eg green and black tea, resveratrol) and their influence on cell-signalling events coinciding with skin cancer promotion. This overview describes recent work from our laboratory and others focusing on molecular mechanisms of selected chemopreventive compounds in growth-related signal transduction pathways and skin cancer.
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4

Graham HN. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Prev Med 1992;21:334-350.

Tea composition varies with climate, season, horticultural practices, variety, and the age of the leaf, i.e., the position of the leaf on the harvest shoot. The fresh green tea leaf contains up to 36% polyphenols and 7-13% (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in dry weight.
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5

Gunning WT, Kramer PM, Lubet RA, Steele VE, Pereira MA. Chemoprevention of vinyl carbamate-induced lung tumors in strain A mice. Exp Lung Res 2000 ;26:757-72.

The ability of potential chemopreventive agents to prevent vinyl carbamate-induced lung tumors was determined in 2 different experiments. Female strain A mice administered intraperitoneally either a single injection of 60 mg/kg vinyl carbamate that induced 24.0 +/- 1.72 tumors/mouse at 24 weeks or 2 injections of 16 mg/kg vinyl carbamate each (32 mg/kg total dose) that induced 43.2 +/- 3.2 tumors/mouse at 20 weeks. Lung carcinomas were found as early as 16 weeks. Dexamethasone and piroxicam provided in the diet were found to significantly inhibit lung tumors induced by 60 mg/kg vinyl carbamate at 24 weeks whereas myo-inositol also provided in the diet, did not significantly inhibit tumor formation. In animals given 6 16-mg/kg doses of vinyl carbamate, tumor multiplicity was reduced roughly 25% by alpha-difluoromethylornithine and green tea and reduced 50% by dexamethasone and piroxicam. Combinations of these agents were also tested using a total dose of 32 mg/kg of vinyl carbamate. Although alpha-difluoromethylornithine and green tea did not result in a significant inhibition of lung tumor formation if used alone, the combination of alpha-difluoromethylornithine and green tea resulted in a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity. The combinations of alpha difluoromethylornithine or green tea with either dexamethasone or piroxicam or the combination of dexamethasone and piroxicam did not decrease tumor multiplicity greater than achieved by dexamethasone and piroxicam alone. In summary, selected chemopreventive agents previously shown to inhibit lung tumors by other chemical carcinogens also inhibited vinyl carbamate-induced lung tumors.
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6

Guyton KZ, Kensler TW. Prevention of liver cancer. Curr Oncol Rep 2002;4:464-70.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. Prominent risk factors for HCC include viral hepatitis infection; dietary exposure to hepatotoxic contaminants such as aflatoxins; alcoholism; smoking; and male gender. Agents exhibiting chemopreventive efficacy in preclinical HCC models include vitamins A, D, and E, herbal extracts, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, green tea, and D-limonene.
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7

Hsu SD, Singh BB, Lewis JB, Borke JL, Dickinson DP, Drake L, Caughman GB, Schuster GS. Chemoprevention of oral cancer by green tea. Gen Dent 2002;50:140-6.

Green tea has been a popular beverage for many centuries. Only recently, however, has the anti-cancer power of green tea constituents been unveiled. Green tea polyphenols are found to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in many types of tumor cells, including oral cancer cells. However, mechanisms that enable normal cells to evade the apoptotic effect still are not understood. In this study, cell growth and invasion assays combined with apoptosis assays were used to examine the effects of green tea extracts, green tea polyphenols, and the most potent green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on normal human keratinocytes and oral carcinoma cells. The results showed that green tea and its constituents selectively induce apoptosis only in oral carcinoma cells, while EGCG was able to inhibit the growth and invasion of oral carcinoma cells. These differential responses to green tea and its constituents between normal and malignant cells were correlated with the induction of p57, a cell cycle regulator. These data suggest that the chemopreventive effects of green tea polyphenols may involve a p57 mediated survival pathway in normal epithelial cells, while oral carcinoma cells undergo an apoptotic pathway. Therefore, regular consumption of green tea could be beneficial in the prevention of oral cancer.
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8

Javed S, Shukla Y. Effects of black tea extract on transplantable and solid tumors in Swiss albino mice. Biomed Environ Sci 2000;13:213-8.

The present set of investigations were initiated to study the anti-tumorigenic potential of aqueous black tea extract (ATE) in Swiss albino mice in in vivo animal bioassay, using 7, 12 dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA) as carcinogen. In the experimental group, 2% ATE was given orally as sole source of drinking water, while the control were allowed to drink normal water, ad lib. The results revealed that drinking of 2% ATE could effectively inhibit the onset of tumorigenesis, cumulative number of tumors and average number of tumors per mouse.
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9

Jung YD, Ellis LM. Inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea. Int J Exp Pathol 2001;82:309-16.

Epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea may decrease cancer risk. In addition, abundant pre-clinical data from several laboratories have provided convincing evidence that polyphenols present in green tea afford protection against cancer in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Recently, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a putative chemopreventive agent and a major component of green tea, was reported to inhibit tumour invasion and angiogenesis, processes that are essential for tumour growth and metastasis. Understanding the basic principles by which EGCG inhibits tumour invasion and angiogenesis may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies, in addition to supporting the role of green tea as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
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10

Katiyar SK, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. Green tea and skin. Arch Dermatol 2000;136:989-94.

The outcome of the several experimental studies suggests that green tea possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic potential, which can be exploited against a variety of skin disorders. Although more clinical studies are needed, supplementation of skin care products with green tea may have a profound impact on various skin disorders in the years to come.
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11

Katiyar SK, Bergamo BM, Vyalil PK, Elmets CA. Green tea polyphenols: DNA photodamage and photoimmunology. J Photochem Photobiol B 2001;65:109-14.

Green tea is a popular beverage consumed worldwide. The epicatechin derivatives, which are commonly called 'polyphenols', are the active ingredients in green tea and possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Studies conducted by our group on human skin have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) prevent ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), which are considered to be mediators of UVB-induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. GTP treated human skin prevented penetration of UV radiation, which was demonstrated by the absence of immunostaining for CPD in the reticular dermis. The topical application of GTP or its most potent chemopreventive constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prior to exposure to UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals. Additionally, studies have shown that EGCG treatment of mouse skin inhibits UVB-induced infiltration of CD11b+ cells. CD11b is a cell surface marker for activated macrophages and neutrophils, which are associated with induction of UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses. EGCG treatment also results in reduction of the UVB-induced immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in skin as well as in draining lymph nodes, and an elevated amount of IL-12 in draining lymph nodes. These in vivo observations suggest that GTPs are photoprotective, and can be used as pharmacological agents for the prevention of solar UVB light-induced skin disorders associated with immune suppression and DNA damage.
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12

Katiyar SK, Elmets CA. Green tea polyphenolic antioxidants and skin photoprotection (Review). Int J Oncol 2001;18:1307-13.

Topical treatment with EGCG on mouse skin also results in prevention of UVB-induced immunosuppression, and oxidative stress. The protective effects of green tea treatment on human skin either topically or consumed orally against UV light-induced inflammatory or carcinogenic responses are not well understood. Based on documented extensive beneficial effects of green tea on mouse skin models and very little in human skin, many pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies are supplementing their skin care products with green tea extracts. Therefore, the focus of this communication is to review and analyze the photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols to skin.
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13

Khokhar S and Magnusdottir SGM. Total phenol, catechin, and caffeine contents of teas commonly consumed in the United Kingdom. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:565-70.

Random samples of green teas marketed in the United Kingdom were found to contain 2.0-4.2% (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).
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14

Lu YP, Lou YR, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Huang MT, Yang CS, Conney AH. Inhibitory effects of orally administered green tea, black tea, and caffeine on skin carcinogenesis in mice previously treated with ultraviolet B light (high-risk mice): relationship to decreased tissue fat. Cancer Res 2001;61:5002-9.

Treatment of SKH-1 hairless mice with ultraviolet B light (UVB; 30 mJ/cm(2)) twice a week for 22 weeks resulted in tumor-free animals with a high risk of developing malignant and nonmalignant skin tumors during the next several months in the absence of additional UVB treatment (high-risk mice). Oral administration of green tea or black tea (6 mg tea solids/ml) to UVB-pretreated high-risk SKH-1 mice for 23 weeks after stopping UVB treatment decreased the number of tumors/mouse, decreased the size of the parametrial fat pads, and decreased the thickness of the dermal fat layer away from tumors and directly under tumors. This is the first demonstration of a close association between inhibition of carcinogenesis and the lowering of tissue fat levels by a chemopreventive agent.
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15

Masuda H, Suzui M, Weinstein IB. Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Growth, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathways, Gene Expression, and Chemosensitivity in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines. Clin Cancer Res 2001;7:4220-4229.

The antitumor effects of the green tea compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have not been studied in detail previously in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs frequently in HNSCC, which is an adverse prognostic factor. Therefore, we examined in detail the molecular effects of EGCG on two human HNSCC cell lines, YCU-N861 and YCU-H891, focusing on the EGFR signaling pathway. The 70% lethal dose (IC(70)) of EGCG for both cell lines was 10 microg/ml. Treatment with EGCG increased the proportion of cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. In cells treated with EGCG, there was a decrease in the cyclin D1 protein, an increase in the p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) proteins, and a reduction in the hyperphosphorylated form of pRB, changes that may account for the arrest in G(1). EGCG also caused a decrease in the Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) proteins, an increase in the Bax protein, and activation of caspase 9, suggesting that EGCG induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway. Treatment with EGCG inhibited phosphorylation of the EGFR, signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (Stat3), and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) proteins and also inhibited basal and transforming growth factor-alpha-stimulated c-fos and cyclin D1 promoter activity. EGCG at 0.1 microg/ml (a concentration found in serum after oral administration) markedly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-fluorouracil. Taken together, these findings provide insights into molecular mechanisms of growth inhibition by EGCG and suggest that this naturally occurring compound may be useful, when used alone or in combination with other agents, in the chemoprevention and/or treatment of HNSCC.
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16

Metz N, Lobstein A, Schneider Y, Gosse F, Schleiffer R, Anton R, Raul F. Suppression of azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity in the colonic mucosa of rats drinking a crude green tea extract. Nutr Cancer 2000;38:60-4.

We determined the effects of a crude green tea extract given as drinking fluid on the promotion/progression phase of colon carcinogenesis in rats after induction of the neoplastic process by azoxymethane. Our data demonstrate that green tea extract reduces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity and suppresses the formation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. They provide new insights into the mechanism of chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties of green tea.
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17

Ohe T, Marutani K, Nakase S. Catechins are not major components responsible for anti-genotoxic effects of tea extracts against nitroarenes. Mutat Res 2001;496:75-81.

Other tea components were found to be more effective than catechins in suppressing umu gene expression of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 induced by four nitroarenes.
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18

Ohishi T, Kishimoto Y, Miura N, Shiota G, Kohri T, Hara Y, Hasegawa J, Isemura M. Synergistic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate with sulindac against colon carcinogenesis of rats treated with azoxymethane. Cancer Lett 2002;177:49-56.

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer activity. Sulindac is also well known as a cancer-preventive agent against colon cancer, but its usage is restricted because of its adverse effects, as exemplified by gastrointestinal bleeding. In the present study, the authors demonstrated a synergistic effects of EGCG and sulindac for cancer preventive activity for rat colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM). They concluded EGCG is a suitable candidate for use in combination with cancer-preventive agents, such as sulindac, to reduce their adverse effects.
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19

Pianetti S, Guo S, Kavanagh KT, Sonenshein GE. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3 gallate inhibits Her-2/neu signaling, proliferation, and transformed phenotype of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2002;62:652-5.

Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor family member Her-2/neu in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis. With evidence accumulating for a chemopreventive role of green tea polyphenols, the effects of epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) on Her-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells were examined. EGCG inhibited mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Her-2/neu NF639 cell growth in culture and soft agar. EGCG reduced signaling via the phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase, Akt kinase to NF-kappaB pathway because of inhibition of basal Her-2/neu receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. EGCG similarly inhibited basal receptor phosphorylation in SMF and Ba/F3 2 + 4 cells, which suggests the potential beneficial use of EGCG in adjuvant therapy of tumors with Her-2/neu overexpression.
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20

Pisters KM, Newman RA, Coldman B, Shin DM, Khuri FR, Hong WK, Glisson BS, Lee JS. Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:1830-8.

In the latter study, it was concluded that a dose of green tea extract (GTE) at 1.0 g/m(2) tid (equivalent to 7 to 8 Japanese cups [120 mL] of green tea three times daily) was recommended for future studies. The side effects of this preparation of GTE were caffeine related. Oral GTE at the doses studied can be taken safely for at least 6 months in adults.
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21

Sadzuka Y, Yamashita Y, Sugiyama T, Sonobe T. Effect of dihydrokainate on the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Cancer Lett 2002;179:157-63.

Components of green tea had previously been shown to be useful modulators in combination with doxorubicin (DOX). The authors confirmed that theanine, a glutamate analogue in tea, enhances the antitumor activity of DOX due to inhibition of DOX efflux from tumor cells. Like dihydrokainate (DHK), theanine is an inhibitor of glutamate transporter across the cell membrane. Both theanine and DHK may be useful modulators for inducing enhancement of antitumor activity of DOX.
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22

Sartippour MR, Shao ZM, Heber D, Beatty P, Zhang L, Liu C, Ellis L, Liu W, Go VL, Brooks MN. Green tea inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction in human breast cancer cells. J Nutr 2002;132:2307-11.

Investigators have shown that green tea and its main catechin epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) may decrease the risk of cancer. Previous study of the authors showed that green tea extract (GTE) as well as its individual catechin components inhibited MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation. Further evidence is provided in this article that inhibition of VEGF transcription appeared to be one of the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the antiangiogenic effects of green tea, which may contribute to its potential use for breast cancer treatment and/or prevention.
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23

Schut HA, Yao R. Tea as a potential chemopreventive agent in PhIP carcinogenesis: effects of green tea and black tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation in female F-344 rats. Nutr Cancer 2000;36:52-8.

The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed during the cooking of proteinaceous animal foods (meat, chicken, and fish). PhIP is a carcinogen in the Fischer 344 (F-344) rat; it induces mammary tumors in female rats and lymphomas and colon and prostate tumors in male rats. In F-344 rats, PhIP forms DNA adducts in various organs, including the target organs. Inhibition of PhIP-DNA adduct formation is likely to lead to inhibition of PhIP tumorigenicity. The authors found that green tea and black tea are potential chemopreventive agents in PhIP-induced tumorigenesis in the F-344 rat.
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24

Smith DM, Dou QP. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin inhibits DNA replication and consequently induces leukemia cell apoptosis. Int J Mol Med 2001;7:645-52.

Here we report that the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) inhibits DNA replication in three leukemia cancer cell lines, Jurkat T, HL-60 and K562. Among all the tested tea polyphenols, EGC was found to be the most potent in accumulation of S phase cells and inhibition of the S-G2 progression. In addition, EGC-mediated inhibition of S phase progression results in induction of apoptosis, as determined by sub-G1 cell population, breakage of endonuclear DNA, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and loss of cell viability. When used in cells containing low S and high G1 and G2/M populations, EGC did not induce apoptosis. Furthermore, EGC did not inhibit M-G1 transition. Our finding that EGC inhibits S phase progression that results in leukemia cell death provides a novel and plausible molecular mechanism for how green tea may inhibit the growth of rapidly proliferating neoplastic cells.
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25

Takada M, Ku Y, Habara K, Ajiki T, Suzuki Y, Kuroda Y. Inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on growth and invasion in human biliary tract carcinoma cells. World J Surg 2002;26:683-6.

The human biliary tract carcinoma cells (TGBC-2, SK-ChA-1, and NOZC-1) were treated with different doses of EGCG (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM) for 48 hours in cell medium. Cell proliferation was analyzed by WST-1 colorimetric assay. For the cell-invasion analysis, the cells were incubated with 100 mM of EGCG for 2 hours. The cells were then added into a Matrigel-coated Cell Insert. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, the cells visible through the Matrigel were counted under the microscope. All human biliary tract cancer cells studied showed a significant suppression of cell growth by EGCG treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment also produced a significant suppression of invasive ability of the carcinoma cells. These data indicated that EGCG might be a potent biological inhibitor of human biliary tract cancers, reducing their proliferative and invasive activities.
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26

Takada M, Nakamura Y, Koizumi T, Toyama H, Kamigaki T, Suzuki Y, Takeyama Y, Kuroda Y. Suppression of human pancreatic carcinoma cell growth and invasion by epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Pancreas 2002;25:45-8.

INTRODUCTION: The consumption of green tea is associated with a lower risk of several types of human carcinomas. A number of studies have focused on the possible mechanisms of cancer prevention by tea extracts, especially polyphenols such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). AIMS AND METHODOLOGY: Green tea-derived EGCG was tested in human pancreatic carcinoma cells. The cells (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3) were treated with different doses of EGCG (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 micromol/L) for 48 hours in culture medium. Proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma cells was measured by means of the WST-1 colorimetric assay. For the study of cell invasion, the cells were incubated with 100 micromol/L EGCG for 2 hours. Then, the cells were added into the cell insert, coated with Matrigel basement membrane matrix. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, the cells that had invaded through the Matrigel were counted visually under the microscope. RESULTS: The growth of all three pancreatic carcinoma cells was significantly suppressed by EGCG treatment in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG treatment caused significant suppression of the invasive ability of pancreatic carcinoma cells PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3 but did not affect the cell cycle protein cyclin D1. CONCLUSION: EGCG may be a potent biologic inhibitor of human pancreatic carcinomas, reducing their proliferative and invasive activities.
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27

Trosko JE, Chang CC. Mechanism of up-regulated gap junctional intercellular communication during chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. Mutat Res 2001;480-481:219-29.

To develop a strategy for efficacious intervention in order to prevent or treat various cancers, one must understand the basic mechanism(s) by which various anticancer dietary factors prevent or reverse the tumor promotion or progression phases. Carcinogenesis is a multistage, multimechanism process, involving the irreversible alteration of a stem cell (the "initiation" phase), followed by the clonal proliferation of the initiated stem cell (the "promotion" phase), from which the acquisition of the invasive and metastatic phenotypes are generated (the "progression" phase). While intervention to prevent or treat cancer could occur at each step, the objective of this presentation will focus on the rate limiting step, the promotion phase. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been hypothesized to regulate growth control, differentiation and apoptosis. Most normal, contact-inhibited cells have functional GJIC, while most, if not all, tumor cells have dysfunctional homologous or heterologous GJIC. Cancer cells are characterized by the lack of growth control, by the inability to terminally differentiate and by resistance to apoptosis. Chemical tumor promoters (phorbol esters, DDT, phenobarbital, unsaturated fatty acids, saccharin, etc.) inhibit GJIC in a reversible fashion and at doses above particular chemical thresholds. Various oncogenes (e.g. ras, raf, neu, src, mos) down-regulate GJIC while several tumor suppressor genes can up-regulate GJIC. Antitumor promoters (retinoids, carotenoids, green tea components) and antioncogene drugs (i.e. lovastatin) can up-regulate GJIC. Transfection of gap junction genes ("connexins") into GJIC-deficient tumor cells can restore GJIC, growth control and reduce tumorigenicity. On the other hand, antisense gap junction genes can convert the phenotype of a non-tumorigenic cell to that of a tumorigenic one. Recently, a specific connexin knockout mouse was shown to have a higher frequency of spontaneous and induced liver cancers. Evidence from these studies clearly suggests that dietary factors can modulate GJIC by inducing various signal transducing systems.
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28

Wang YC, Bachrach. The specific anti-cancer activity of green tea (-)-epigaloocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Amino Acids 2002;22: 131-143.

Green tea which is widely consumed in China, Japan and India, contains polyphenolic compounds, which account for 30% of the dry weight of the leaves. Most of the polyphenols are flavanols, of which (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is most abundant. Epidemiological studies revealed that the incidences of stomach and prostate cancers are the lowest in the world among a population that consumes green tea on a regular basis. It has also been reported that the quantity of green tea consumed, plays an important role in reducing cancer risk and in delaying cancer outbreak and recurrence. Various systems were used to confirm anti-cancer activities of green tea and/or EGCG. These included experimental animals in which cancer was induced chemically. Cultured cells transformed chemically or by oncogenes were also used. These studies clearly demonstrated that green tea or EGCG have anticancer and cancer preventive properties. The mechanisms of these activities have also been studied in details. It has been shown that green tea and its active components interfere with signal transduction pathways. Thus the activities of various protein kinases are inhibited, the expression of nuclear proto-oncogenes declines and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is reduced. ODC, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of polyamines is closely linked with cellular proliferation and carcinogenesis. Inhibitors of ODC, like alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) have long been used for cancer prevention and therapy. It has been suggested that polyamine depletion by green tea could offer one explanation for its anti-cancer activities.

The authors in the second report stated that the level of ornithine decarboxylase, which is a signal for cellular proliferation, was reduced by EGCG in the transformed but not in the normal cells. EGCG also showed strong inhibition of tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activities in the transformed cells without affecting the kinases in the normal cells. EGCG inhibited the proliferation of leukemic cells. The research findings suggest that EGCG has therapeutic potential in the combat against cancer.
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29

Wargovich MJ, Woods C, Hollis DM, Zander ME. Herbals, cancer prevention and health. J Nutr 2001 131(11 Suppl):3034S-6S.

In the authors’ opinion, herbal products may act in a pathway similar to pharmaceuticals yet without side effects. Natural anti-inflammatory compounds abound in the herbal world and are found in green tea, the spice sturmeric and rosemary, feverfew and others. Because the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with a reduced risk for several cancers, it is at least plausible that natural NSAID should be explored for possible use as cancer preventives.
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30

Williams SN, Shih H, Guenette DK et al. Comparative studies on the effects of green tea extracts and individual tea catechins on human CYP1A gene expression. Chem Biol Interact 2000;128:211-229.

Modulation of human CYP1A expression by green tea extracts cannot be attributed to the action of a single tea catechin, but rather is due to the effects of a complex mixture.
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31

Yanaga H, Fujii T, Koga T, Araki R, Shirouzu K. Prevention of carcinogenesis of mouse mammary epithelial cells RIII/MG by epigallocatechin gallate. Int J Mol Med 2002;10:311-5.

The authors investigated the chemopreventive effect of EGCG in vitro and in vivo using mouse mammary epithelial cells RIII/MG. In the in vitro experiment, crude catechin (catechin) containing 50% or more EGCG significantly inhibited the growth of RIII/MG cells, which were precancerous cultured cells. Many cells died, and a DNA ladder was observed. In the in vivo experiment, RIII/MG cells formed a tumor after 13 weeks in a group without catechin treatment, and the tumor formation rate in the 20th week was 40%. In a group treated with 0.1% catechin, a tumor began to grow in the 13th week, and the tumor formation rate in the 20th week was 20%. In a group treated with 1% catechin, no tumor was detected even in the 20th week. There was no significant difference in the change in body weight between the catechin treatment groups and the non-treatment group during the observation period. Tissue samples were stained by the nick-end-labeling method and apoptosis was observed in many cells. Based on the above findings, EGCG inhibited growth in the mouse viral mammary epithelial carcinogenesis model RIII/MG, and induced apoptosis, suggesting a clinical usefulness of EGCG as a chemopreventive substance.
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32

Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng X. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2002;42:25-54.

Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. The inhibition of tumorigenesis by green or black tea preparations has been demonstrated in animal models on different organ sites such as skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and mammary gland. Epidemiological studies, however, have not yielded clear conclusions concerning the protective effects of tea consumption against cancer formation in humans. The discrepancy between the results from humans and animal models could be due to 1) the much higher doses of tea used in animals in comparison to human consumption, 2) the differences in causative factors between the cancers in humans and animals, and 3) confounding factors limiting the power of epidemiological studies to detect an effect. It is possible that tea may be only effective against specific types of cancer caused by certain etiological factors. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea, including the modulation of signal transduction pathways that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, induction of apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells, as well as inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. These mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer.
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33

Zhang G, Miura Y, Yagasaki K. Effects of dietary powdered green tea and theanine on tumor growth and endogenous hyperlipidemia in hepatoma-bearing rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002 ;66:711-6.

The effects of dietary powdered green tea (PGT) and theanine on in vivo hepatoma growth and cancerous hyperlipidemia were investigated in rats that had been implanted with a rat ascites hepatoma cell line of AH109A cells. The hepatoma-bearing rats were fed with a 20% casein diet (20C), 20C containing 2% PGT, or 20C containing 0.1% theanine for 14 days. Dietary PGT significantly and time-dependently reduced the solid tumor volume and weight as did dietary theanine. The hepatoma-induced endogenous hyperlipidemia, which was characterized by rises in the serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) and triglyceride (hypertriglyceridemia) levels, was significantly suppressed by PGT and theanine supplementation. Bile acid excretion into the feces was significantly higher in the PGT- and theanine-fed rats than in the control rats. This inhibition of hypercholesterolemia may have resulted from tumor growth suppression as well as increased excretion of steroids from the body. These results suggest that PGT had both anti-proliferative activity toward hepatoma cells and hypolipidemic activity in the hepatoma bearing rats. They also suggest that theanine was, at least in part, responsible for the PGT actions.
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34 Babich H, Krupka ME, Nissim HA, Zuckerbraun HL. Differential in vitro cytotoxicity of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) to cancer and normal cells from the human oral cavity. Toxicol In Vitro. 2005 Mar;19(2):231-42.

This study evaluated the biologic activity of epicatechin gallate (ECG), a polyphenol in tea, to carcinoma HSC-2 cells and normal HGF-2 fibroblasts cells from the human oral cavity. The relative cytotoxicity of ECG, as compared to five other polyphenols in tea, was evaluated. For the HSC-2 carcinoma cells, ECG, catechin gallate (CG), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) grouped as highly toxic, epigallocatechin (EGC) as moderately toxic, and catechin (C) and epicatechin (EC) as least toxic. For the HGF-2 fibroblasts, ECG and CG grouped as highly toxic, EGCG as moderately toxic, and EGC, C, and EC as least toxic. The cytotoxic effects of the polyphenols were more pronounced to the carcinoma, than to the normal, cells. The addition of ECG to cell culture medium led to the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). However, ECG, as compared to EGCG, was a poor generator of H(2)O(2) and, hence, the cytotoxicity of ECG was unaffected by the presence of the antioxidants, N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione, and catalase. The cytotoxicity of ECG was unaffected by a metabolic activating system, i.e., a hepatic microsomal S-9 mix. DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activity, and nuclear staining, both with acridine orange and the TUNEL procedure, were used to assess ECG-induced apoptosis. ECG induced apoptosis in the carcinoma HSC-2 cells, but not in the normal HGF-2 fibroblasts. This research supports those studies suggesting that tea green is an effective chemopreventive agent of oral carcinoma.
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35 Lee YK, Bone ND, Strege AK, Shanafelt TD, Jelinek DF, Kay NE. VEGF receptor phosphorylation status and apoptosis is modulated by a green tea component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2004 Aug 1;104(3):788-94.

We recently reported that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells synthesize and release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. CLL B cells also express VEGF membrane receptors (VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2), suggesting that they use VEGF as a survival factor. To assess the mechanism of apoptosis resistance related to VEGF, we determined the impact of VEGF on CLL B cells, and we studied the impact of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a known receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor, on VEGF receptor status and viability of CLL B cells. VEGF165 significantly increased apoptotic resistance of CLL B cells, and immunoblotting revealed that VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 are spontaneously phosphorylated on CLL B cells. EGCG significantly increased apoptosis/cell death in 8 of 10 CLL samples measured by annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining. The increase in annexin V/PI staining was accompanied by caspase-3 activation and poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage at low concentrations of EGCG (3 microg/mL). Moreover, EGCG suppressed the proteins B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in CLL B cells. Finally, EGCG (3-25 microg/mL) suppressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 phosphorylation, albeit incompletely. Thus, these results suggest that VEGF signaling regulates survival signals in CLL cells and that interruption of this autocrine pathway results in caspase activation and subsequent leukemic cell death.
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36 Kim HS, Kim MH, Jeong M, Hwang YS, Lim SH, Shin BA, Ahn BW, Jung YD. EGCG blocks tumor promoter-induced MMP-9 expression via suppression of MAPK and AP-1 activation in human gastric AGS cells. Anticancer Res. 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2B):747-53.

Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been known to correlate closely with tumor cell invasion and strategies to down-regulate their expression may ultimately be of clinical utility. In this study, we investigated the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major green tea catechin, on the cell invasiveness and MMP-9 induction in human gastric cancer AGS cells. EGCG inhibited the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced cell invasiveness and MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG treatment was found to reduce the MMP-9 transcriptional activity. To further study the mechanisms for the EGCG-mediated regulation of MMP-9, the effects of EGCG on transcription factor AP-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities were examined. The results showed that EGCG suppressed the PMA-induced AP-1 activation. EGCG also abrogated the PMA-induced activation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase (Erk) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are upstream modulators of AP-1. These results suggest that EGCG may exert at least part of its anti-invasive effect in gastric cancer by controlling MMP expression through the suppression of MAPK and AP-1 activation.
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37 Schwartz JL, Baker V, Larios E, Chung FL. Molecular and cellular effects of green tea on oral cells of smokers: A pilot study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Jan;49(1):43-51.

Studies in cell culture and laboratory animals have shown that green tea and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibit cell growth and reduce tumor incidence. However, results of epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent, sometimes conflicting data regarding protection by green tea against human cancers. To clarify the findings of these laboratory studies in application to humans, we conducted a pilot intervention study with three heavy smokers (> 10 cigarettes/day) and three nonsmokers (never smokers) in order to evaluate the molecular and cellular effects of drinking green tea using human oral cells as an investigative tool. Green tea total extract (400-500 mg/cup, 5 cups/day) was administered in drinking water to the subjects for four weeks. Two oral cytology samples were taken weekly for measurements of tobacco carcinogen-induced DNA damage, including bulky adducts and oxidized bases, cell growth, DNA content, and apoptosis. The study showed that during the course of green tea administration smoking-induced DNA damage was decreased, cell growth was inhibited, and the percentage of cells in S phase was reduced, cells accumulated in G(1) phase (cyclin D(1) positive), DNA content became more diploid and less aneuploid, and p53, Caspase-3, and TUNEL, markers of apoptosis, were increased. The study, although preliminary, indicates that drinking green tea reduced the number of damaged cells in smokers by inducing cell growth arrest and apoptosis, a mechanism similar to that observed in cultured cells and animals. These results warrant a large-scale intervention trial to further verify the role of green tea in the prevention of oral cancer in smokers.
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