Greenteahaus:  The Green Tea Reference Library

Antiviral effects of green tea

Follow links to abstracts below. Complete bibliography information may be used to obtain a full copy of the article at your local library.

1 HTLV-1 provirus load in peripheral blood lymphocytes of HTLV-1 carriers is diminished by green tea drinking. Cancer Sci. 2004 Jul;95(7):596-601.
2 Inhibition of adenovirus infection and adenain by green tea catechins. Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr;58(2):167-73.
3 Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Feb 21;301(4):1062-8.
4 Antiviral properties of prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate from green tea leaf. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2002 Jul;13(4):223-9.
5 Additional inhibitory effect of tea extract on the growth of influenza A and B viruses in MDCK cells. Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46(7):491-4.
6 Protective effects of green tea extracts (polyphenon E and EGCG) on human cervical lesions. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003 Oct;12(5):383-90.
7 Polyphenolic antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea as a candidate anti-HIV agent. AIDS. 2002 Apr 12;16(6):939-41.
8 Inhibitory Effects of Polyphenolic Catechins from Chinese Green Tea on HIV Reverse Transcriptase Activity. J Biomed Sci. 1994 Jun;1(3):163-166.
9 Inhibition of rotavirus and enterovirus infections by tea extracts. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1991 Aug;44(4):181-6.
10 Epigallocatechin gallate, the main polyphenol in green tea, binds to the T-cell receptor, CD4: Potential for HIV-1 therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Dec;118(6):1369-74. Epub 2006 Oct 13.
11 EGCG mitigates neurotoxicity mediated by HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Tat in the presence of IFN-gamma: role of JAK/STAT1 signaling and implications for HIV-associated dementia. Brain Res. 2006 Dec 6;1123(1):216-25. Epub 2006 Oct 31.
12 How can (-)-epigallocatechin gallate from green tea prevent HIV-1 infection? Mechanistic insights from computational modeling and the implication for rational design of anti-HIV-1 entry inhibitors. J Phys Chem B. 2006 Feb 16;110(6):2910-7.
13 Inhibitory effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral Res. 2002 Jan;53(1):19-34.

Abstracts
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1 Sonoda J, Koriyama C, Yamamoto S, Kozako T, Li HC, Lema C, Yashiki S, Fujiyoshi T, Yoshinaga M, Nagata Y, Akiba S, Takezaki T, Yamada K, Sonoda S. HTLV-1 provirus load in peripheral blood lymphocytes of HTLV-1 carriers is diminished by green tea drinking. Cancer Sci. 2004 Jul;95(7):596-601.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causatively associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Since a high level of HTLV-1 provirus load in circulating lymphocytes is thought to be a risk for ATL and HAM/TSP, diminution of HTLV-1 provirus load in the circulation may prevent these intractable diseases. Our previous study (Jpn J Cancer Res 2000; 91: 34-40) demonstrated that green tea polyphenols inhibit in vitro growth of ATL cells, as well as HTLV-1-infected T-cells. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of green tea polyphenols on HTLV-1 provirus load in peripheral blood lymphocytes on HTLV-1 carriers. We recruited 83 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers to examine HTLV-1 provirus DNA with or without administration of capsulated green tea extract powder. Thirty-seven subjects were followed up for 5 months by measuring HTLV-1 provirus load after daily intake of 9 capsules of green tea extract powder per day (equivalent to 10 cups of regular green tea), and 46 subjects lived ad libitum without intake of any green tea capsule. The real-time PCR quantification of HTLV-1 DNA revealed a wide range of variation of HTLV-1 provirus load among asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (0.2-200.2 copies of HTLV-1 provirus load per 1000 peripheral blood lymphocytes). Daily intake of the capsulated green tea for 5 months significantly diminished the HTLV-1 provirus load as compared with the controls (P = 0.031). These results suggest that green tea drinking suppresses proliferation of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes in vivo.
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2 Weber JM, Ruzindana-Umunyana A, Imbeault L, Sircar S. Inhibition of adenovirus infection and adenain by green tea catechins. Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr;58(2):167-73.

Green tea catechins have been reported to inhibit proteases involved in cancer metastasis and infection by influenza virus and HIV. To date there are no effective anti-adenoviral therapies. Consequently, we studied the effect of green tea catechins, and particularly the predominant component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on adenovirus infection and the viral protease adenain, in cell culture. Adding EGCG (100 microM) to the medium of infected cells reduced virus yield by two orders of magnitude, giving and IC(50) of 25 microM and a therapeutic index of 22 in Hep2 cells. The agent was the most effective when added to the cells during the transition from the early to the late phase of viral infection suggesting that EGCG inhibits one or more late steps in virus infection. One of these steps appears to be virus assembly because the titer of infectious virus and the production of physical particles was much more affected than the synthesis of virus proteins. Another step might be the maturation cleavages carried out by adenain. Of the four catechins tested on adenain, EGCG was the most inhibitory with an IC(50) of 109 microM, compared with an IC(50) of 714 microM for PCMB, a standard cysteine protease inhibitor. EGCG and different green teas inactivated purified adenovirions with IC(50) of 250 and 245-3095, respectively. We conclude that the anti-adenoviral activity of EGCG manifests itself through several mechanisms, both outside and inside the cell, but at effective drug concentrations well above that reported in the serum of green tea drinkers.
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3 Chang LK, Wei TT, Chiu YF, Tung CP, Chuang JY, Hung SK, Li C, Liu ST. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Feb 21;301(4):1062-8.

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), abundant in green tea, is a potent anti-microbial and anti-tumor compound. This investigation used immunoblot, flow cytometry, microarray, and indirect immunofluorescence analyses to show that at concentrations exceeding 50 microM, EGCG inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, including Rta, Zta, and EA-D, but does not affect the expression of EBNA-1. Moreover, DNA microarray and transient transfection analyses demonstrated that EGCG blocks EBV lytic cycle by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes, thus inhibiting the initiation of EBV lytic cascade.
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4 Cheng HY, Lin CC, Lin TC. Antiviral properties of prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate from green tea leaf. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2002 Jul;13(4):223-9.

Prodelphinidin B-2 3-O-gallate, a proanthocyanidin gallate isolated from green tea leaf, was investigated for its anti-herpes simplex virus type 2 properties in vitro. Prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate exhibited antiviral activity with IC50 of 5.0 +/-1.0 microM and 1.6 +/-0.3 pM for XTT and plaque reduction (PRA) assays, respectively. Cytotoxicity assay had shown that prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate possessed cytotoxic effect toward Vero cell at concentration higher than its IC50. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC50) was 33.3 +/- 3.7 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of IC50 to CC50) for XTT assay and PRA was 6.7 and 20.8, respectively. Prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate significantly reduced viral infectivity at concentrations 10 microM or more. Result of time-of-addition studies suggested that prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate affected the late stage of HSV-2 infection. In addition, it was also shown to inhibit the virus from attaching and penetrating into the cell. Thus, prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate was concluded to possess antiviral activity with mechanism of inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and disturbing the late stage of viral infection.
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5 Imanishi N, Tuji Y, Katada Y, Maruhashi M, Konosu S, Mantani N, Terasawa K, Ochiai H. Additional inhibitory effect of tea extract on the growth of influenza A and B viruses in MDCK cells. Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46(7):491-4.

It has been previously reported that green-tea extract (GTE) inhibits the growth of influenza virus by preventing its adsorption. In this study, we further investigated whether GTE exerts an additional inhibitory effect on the acidification of intracellular compartments such as endosomes and lysosomes (referred to as ELS) and thereby inhibits the growth of influenza A and B viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The vital fluorescence microscopic study showed that GTE inhibited acidification of ELS in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the growth of influenza A and B viruses was equally inhibited when the cells were treated with GTE within as early as 5 to 15 min after infection, depending on the virus strains. The fact that (-)epigallocatechin (EGC), one of major catechin molecules in GTE, exerts the inhibitory effects on the acidification of ELS and virus growth in a manner similar to that of GTE strongly suggests that EGC is one of the active components in the extract.
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6 Ahn WS, Yoo J, Huh SW, Kim CK, Lee JM, Namkoong SE, Bae SM, Lee IP. Protective effects of green tea extracts (polyphenon E and EGCG) on human cervical lesions. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003 Oct;12(5):383-90.

We investigated clinical efficacy of green tea extracts (polyphenon E; poly E and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG]) delivered in a form of ointment or capsule in patients with human papilloma virus (HPV) infected cervical lesions. Fifty-one patients with cervical lesions (chronic cervicitis, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia and severe dysplasia) were divided into four groups, as compared with 39 untreated patients as a control. Poly E ointment was applied locally to 27 patients twice a week. For oral delivery, a 200 mg of poly E or EGCG capsule was taken orally every day for eight to 12 weeks. In the study, 20 out of 27 patients (74%) under poly E ointment therapy showed a response. Six out of eight patients under poly E ointment plus poly E capsule therapy (75%) showed a response, and three out of six patients (50%) under poly E capsule therapy showed a response. Six out of 10 patients (60%) under EGCG capsule therapy showed a response. Overall, a 69% response rate (35/51) was noted for treatment with green tea extracts, as compared with a 10% response rate (4/39) in untreated controls (P<0.05). Thus, the data collected here demonstrated that green tea extracts in a form of ointment and capsule are effective for treating cervical lesions, suggesting that green tea extracts can be a potential therapy regimen for patients with HPV infected cervical lesions.
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7 Fassina G, Buffa A, Benelli R, Varnier OE, Noonan DM, Albini A. Polyphenolic antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea as a candidate anti-HIV agent. AIDS. 2002 Apr 12;16(6):939-41.

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the components of green tea, has been suggested to have antiviral activity. To determine the effects of EGCG on HIV infection, peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated with either LAI/IIIB or Bal HIV strains and increasing concentrations of EGCG. EGCG strongly inhibited the replication of both virus strains as determined by reverse transcriptase and p24 assays on the cell supernatants.
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8 Chang CW, Hsu FL, Lin JY. Inhibitory Effects of Polyphenolic Catechins from Chinese Green Tea on HIV Reverse Transcriptase Activity. J Biomed Sci. 1994 Jun;1(3):163-166.

Three polyphenolic catechins, epigallocatechin (1), epicatechin-3-O-gallate (2) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (3), were isolated from Chinese green tea, Ti-Kaun-Yin (Camellia sinensis) and demonstrated as a new class of human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT) inhibitor. The concentrations required for 50% inhibition for the compounds (1), (2) and (3) were 7.80, 0.32 and 0.68 &mgr;M, respectively. The polyphenolic catechins with a galloyl group at the 3 position were potent inhibitors of HIV-RT. Kinetic analysis indicated that the polyphenolic catechins were competitive inhibitors with respect to the template-primer (rA)(n)(dT)(12-18) and noncompetitive inhibitors to dTTP.
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9 Mukoyama A, Ushijima H, Nishimura S, Koike H, Toda M, Hara Y, Shimamura T. Inhibition of rotavirus and enterovirus infections by tea extracts. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1991 Aug;44(4):181-6.

Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and theaflavin digallate from black tea inhibited infections of cultured rhesus monkey kidney MA 104 cells with rotaviruses and enteroviruses. Their antiviral effects were maximally induced when directly added to virus, and their pre- and post-treatment of the cells produced much weak antiviral activity. Antiviral activity of the extracts therefore seems to be attributable to interference with virus adsorption.
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10 Williamson MP, McCormick TG, Nance CL, Shearer WT. Epigallocatechin gallate, the main polyphenol in green tea, binds to the T-cell receptor, CD4: Potential for HIV-1 therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Dec;118(6):1369-74. Epub 2006 Oct 13.

 Green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has an anti-HIV-1 effect by preventing the binding of HIV-1 glycoprotein (gp) 120 to the CD4 molecule on T cells. The objective of this research was to demonstrate that EGCG binds to the CD4 molecule at the gp120 attachment site and inhibits gp120 binding at physiologically relevant levels, thus establishing EGCG as a potential therapeutic treatment for HIV-1 infection.
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11 Giunta B, Obregon D, Hou H, Zeng J, Sun N, Nikolic V, Ehrhart J, Shytle D, Fernandez F, Tan J. EGCG mitigates neurotoxicity mediated by HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Tat in the presence of IFN-gamma: role of JAK/STAT1 signaling and implications for HIV-associated dementia. Brain Res. 2006 Dec 6;1123(1):216-25. Epub 2006 Oct 31.

Green tea EGCG attenuates the neurotoxicity of IFN-gamma augmented neuronal damage from HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Tat both in vitro and in vivo. Thus EGCG may represent a novel natural compound for the prevention and treatment of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). [Tat, transactivating regulatory protein, is a viral transcriptional transactivator which plays an important role in AIDS pathogenesis]
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12 Hamza A, Zhan CG. How can (-)-epigallocatechin gallate from green tea prevent HIV-1 infection? Mechanistic insights from computational modeling and the implication for rational design of anti-HIV-1 entry inhibitors. J Phys Chem B. 2006 Feb 16;110(6):2910-7.

The results reveal that green tea EGCG binds with CD4 in such a way that the calculated binding affinity of gp120 with the CD4-EGCG complex is negligible. So, the favorable binding of EGCG with CD4 can effectively block gp120-CD4 binding.
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13 Yamaguchi K, Honda M, Ikigai H, Hara Y, Shimamura T. Inhibitory effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral Res. 2002 Jan;53(1):19-34.

Green tea EGCG has a destructive effect on the viral particles, and post-adsorption entry and RT in acutely infected monocytoid cells are significantly inhibited at concentrations of EGCG greater than 1 microM, and protease kinetics are suppressed at a concentration higher than 10 microM in the cell-free study. Viral production by THP-1 cells chronically-infected with HIV-1 is also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect is enhanced by liposome modification of EGCG.
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