The Green Tea Reference Library
Green tea enhances the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics, especially that against methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococcus aureus, MRSA
(1) Stapleton PD, Shah S, Anderson JC, Hara Y, Hamilton-Miller JM, Taylor PW.Modulation of beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by catechins and gallates. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004 May;23(5):462-7.
Aqueous extracts of Japanese green tea (Camellia sinensis) are able to reverse beta-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We have attributed the capacity to reverse oxacillin resistance in the homogeneous PBP2a producer BB568 and in EMRSA-16 to (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-catechin gallate (CG). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for oxacillin were reduced from 256 and 512 to 1-4 mg/l, respectively, in the presence of these polyphenols. In addition, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) had a moderate capacity to modulate oxacillin activity against S. aureus BB568, but none against EMRSA-16. ECG, CG and EGCG increased the sensitivity of EMRSA-15 to oxacillin. The gallate moiety was essential for the oxacillin-modulating activity of ECG, as both (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3-cyclohexylcarboxylate were unable to reverse resistance to oxacillin. Gallic acid and three alkyl gallates (methyl gallate, propyl gallate, and octyl gallate) did not modulate beta-lactam resistance in MRSA. Octyl gallate exhibited direct antibacterial activity against S. aureus BB568 (16 mg/l). Modulation of beta-lactam resistance by ECG significantly enhanced the activities of flucloxacillin and the carbapenem antibiotics imipenem and meropenem against 40 MRSA isolates, with MIC(90) values for the antibiotics reduced to the susceptibility breakpoint or below. Consequently, EGCG, CG and, particularly, ECG warrant further investigation as agents to combat beta-lactam resistance in S. aureus.
(2) Yamashita S, Yokoyama K, Matsumiya N, Yamaguchi H. Successful green tea nebulization therapy for subglottic tracheal stenosis due to MRSA infection. J Infect. 2001 Apr;42(3):222-3.
(3) Yam TS, Hamilton-Miller JM, Shah S. The effect of a component of tea (Camellia sinensis) on methicillin resistance, PBP2' synthesis, and beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998 Aug;42(2):211-6.
Extracts of tea (Camellia sinensis) can reverse methicillin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and also, to some extent, penicillin resistance in beta-lactamase-producing S. aureus. These phenomena are explained by prevention of PBP2' synthesis and inhibition of secretion of beta-lactamase, respectively. Synergy between beta-lactams and tea extracts were demonstrated by disc diffusion, chequerboard titration and growth curves. Partition chromatography of an extract of green tea on Sephadex LH-20 yielded several fractions, one of which contained a virtually pure compound that showed the above-mentioned activities, at concentrations above about 2 mg/L. The observed activities are novel and distinct from the previously reported direct antibacterial activity of tea extracts. Prevention of PBP2' synthesis offers an interesting possible new approach for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA.
(4) Simonetti G, Simonetti N, Villa A. Increased microbicidal activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in combination with butylated hydroxyanisole. J Chemother. 2004 Apr;16(2):122-7.
We have demonstrated that green tea (Camellia sinensis) shows increased antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi when used in combination with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Glycolic extract taken from green tea showed only limited activity against Streptococcus mutans and no activity against Candida albicans and certain strains of Escherichia coli. BHA, at non inhibitory concentrations, increased the microbicidal activity of green tea against 10(10) S. mutans (p<0.01), non-susceptible E. coli (p<0.01) and C. albicans (p<0.01). Green tea in combination with BHA reduced the hydrophobicity of S. mutans (p<0.01) and greatly inhibited (p<0.001) the formation of hyphae in C. albicans. The increased antimicrobial activity of green tea is related to an impairment of the barrier function in microorganisms and a depletion of thiol groups. The increased activity of green tea as an oral antimicrobial product is discussed.
(5) Sudano Roccaro A, Blanco AR, Giuliano F, Rusciano D, Enea V. Epigallocatechin-gallate enhances the activity of tetracycline in staphylococci by inhibiting its efflux from bacterial cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Jun;48(6):1968-73.
Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg), the major catechin present in green tea extracts, has been shown to have several antibacterial activities, limiting bacterial growth and invasion and acting in synergy with beta-lactam antibiotics. In this article, we report that EGCg at doses half and below its calculated MIC of 100 microg/ml, is able to reverse tetracycline resistance in staphylococcal isolates expressing the specific efflux pump Tet(K) and appears to improve the MICs of tetracycline for susceptible staphylococcal isolates as well. The visible effect of EGCg is an increased accumulation of tetracycline inside bacterial cells. This effect is likely due to the inhibition of pump activity, and it is evident not only for Tet(K) pumps but also for efflux pumps of a different class [Tet(B)]. In summary, our data indicate that the observed dramatic enhancement by EGCg of tetracycline activity for resistant staphylococcal isolates is caused by impairment of tetracycline efflux pump activity and increased intracellular retention of the drug, suggesting a possible use of EGCg as an adjuvant in antibacterial therapy.
(6) Hirasawa M, Takada K. Multiple effects of green tea catechin on the antifungal activity of antimycotics against Candida albicans. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004 Feb;53(2):225-9.
OBJECTIVES: The susceptibility of Candida albicans to catechin under varying pH conditions and the synergism of the combination of catechin and antimycotics were evaluated.Method: Antifungal activity was determined by broth dilution and calculation of cfu. RESULTS: The antifungal activity of catechin was pH dependent. The concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) causing 90% growth inhibition of tested strains of C. albicans was 2000 mg/L at pH 6.0, 500-1000 mg/L at pH 6.5 and 15.6-250 mg/L at pH 7.0. Among catechins, pyrogallol catechin showed stronger antifungal activity against C. albicans than catechol catechin. The addition of 6.25-25 or 3.12-12.5 mg/L EGCg to amphotericin B 0.125 or 0.25 mg/L (below MIC) at pH 7.0 resulted in enhancement, respectively, of the antifungal effect of amphotericin B against amphotericin B-susceptible or -resistant C. albicans. Combined treatment with 3.12-12.5 mg/L EGCg plus amphotericin B 0.5 mg/L (below MIC) markedly decreased the growth of amphotericin B-resistant C. albicans. When fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans was treated with 25-50 mg/L EGCg and fluconazole 0.125-0.25 mg/L (below MIC), its growth was inhibited by 93.0%-99.4% compared with its growth in the presence of fluconazole alone. The combined use of 12.5 mg/L EGCg and fluconazole 10-50 mg/L (below MIC) inhibited the growth of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans by 98.5%-99.7%. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that EGCg enhances the antifungal effect of amphotericin B or fluconazole against antimycotic-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans. Combined treatment with catechin allows the use of lower doses of antimycotics and induces multiple antifungal effects. It is hoped that this may help to avoid the side effects of antimycotics.
(7) Yanagawa Y, Yamamoto Y, Hara Y, Shimamura T. A combination effect of epigallocatechin gallate, a major compound of green tea catechins, with antibiotics on Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro. Curr Microbiol. 2003 Sep;47(3):244-9.
Since green tea catechins are known to have antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms, their possible effects on Helicobacter pylori in combination with antibiotics were examined. Fifty-six clinical isolates of H. pylori, including 19 isolates highly resistant to metronidazole (MTZ) and/or clarithromycin (CLR), were used to determine in vitro sensitivity to tea catechins. The MIC90 of both epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and epicatechin gallate (ECg) was 100 microg/ml. However, other tea catechins tested did not show any anti-H. pylori activity. Highly antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates showed a similar sensitivity to both EGCg and ECg. The kinetic study of antibacterial activity in liquid cultures revealed a relatively slow but strong activity on the growth of H. pylori. In combination with sub-MIC of amoxicillin (AMX), the antibacterial activity of AMX was significantly enhanced by the presence of EGCg. To estimate the general combination effect between EGCg and other antibiotics, such as MTZ and CLR, on the antibacterial activity against clinical isolates, the fraction inhibitory concentration (FIC) was determined by checkerboard study. The FIC indexes showed additive effects between EGCg and antibiotics tested. These results indicatethat EGCg may be a valuable therapeutic agent against H. pylori infection.
(8) Hirasawa M, Takada K, Makimura M, Otake S. Improvement of periodontal status by green tea catechin using a local delivery system: a clinical pilot study. J Periodontal Res. 2002 Dec;37(6):433-8.
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of green tea catechin for the improvement of periodontal disease. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and bactericidal activity of green tea catechin against black-pigmented, Gram-negative anaerobic rods (BPR) were measured. Hydroxypropylcellulose strips containing green tea catechin as a slow release local delivery system were applied in pockets in patients once a week for 8 weeks. The clinical, enzymatic and microbiological effects of the catechin were determined. Green tea catechin showed a bactericidal effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella spp. in vitro with an MIC of 1.0 mg/ml. In the in vivo experiment, the pocket depth (PD) and the proportion of BPR were markedly decreased in the catechin group with mechanical treatment at week 8 compared with the baseline with significant difference. In contrast, PD and BPR were similar to the baseline and the value at the end of the experimental period in the placebo sites of scaled groups. The peptidase activities in the gingival fluid were maintained at lower levels during the experimental period in the test sites, while it reached 70% of that at baseline in the placebo sites. No morbidity was observed in the placebo and catechin groups without mechanical treatment. Green tea catechin showed a bactericidal effect against BPR and the combined use of mechanical treatment and the application of green tea catechin using a slow release local delivery system was effective in improving periodontal status.
(9) Stapleton PD, Taylor PW. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: mechanisms and modulation. Sci Prog. 2002;85(Pt 1):57-72.
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen both within hospitals and in the community. Methicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, acts by inhibiting penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that are involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan, an essential mesh-like polymer that surrounds the cell. S. aureus can become resistant to methicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics through the expression of a foreign PBP, PBP2a, that is resistant to the action of methicillin but which can perform the functions of the host PBPs. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates are often resistant to other classes of antibiotics (through different mechanisms) making treatment options limited, and this has led to the search for new compounds active against these strains. An understanding of the mechanism of methicillin resistance has led to the discovery of accessory factors that influence the level and nature of methicillin resistance. Accessory factors, such as Fem factors, provide possible new targets, while compounds that modulate methicillin resistance such as epicatechin gallate, derived from green tea, and corilagin, provide possible lead compounds for development of inhibitors.
(10) Pillai SP, Pillai CA, Shankel DM, Mitscher LA. The ability of certain antimutagenic agents to prevent development of antibiotic resistance. Mutat Res. 2001 Sep 20;496(1-2):61-73.
Resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has now become a prominent fact of contemporary life. It is believed that poor patient compliance, e.g. interrupted or premature cessation of therapy; and misuse or abuse of antibiotics, e.g. wrong antibiotic or insufficient dose, play important roles in resistance development. We present evidence that, this form of resistance often stems from spontaneous mutations accompanied by the positive selecting pressure of the doses of antibiotics being between the MIC and MBC levels. A number of antimutagenic agents, e.g. green tea catechins, and other antioxidants, etc. are able to suppress the emergence of resistance. In many cases, these agents are capable of exerting these effects at doses which by themselves produce no visible effect on growth. In a number of cases antimutagenic substances capable of preventing resistance emergence are present in normal food stuffs. These effects are exerted against resistance to tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and the like. The implications of these laboratory findings for practical chemotherapy are discussed.
(11) Shiota S, Shimizu M, Mizushima T, Ito H, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Tsuchiya T.
Marked reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of beta-lactams in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus produced by epicatechin gallate, an ingredient of green tea (Camellia sinensis). Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Dec;22(12):1388-90.
We found that epicatechin gallate, a constituent of an extract of tea leaves (green tea) markedly lowered the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin and other beta-lactams, but not of other antibacterial agents tested, in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial action of epicatechin gallate plus oxacillin was a bactericidal one.
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